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  Glossary and Definitions
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glossary of Terms and Definitions
     Glossary and Definitions

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  • Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ)

  • After a continuous debate over the criteria for Joint Implementation (JI), the Conference of the Parties (COP) reached an enabling compromise for a pilot phase of JI without any explicit crediting of emission reductions to the investor country. This pilot phase of JI projects has been called Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ). (Source: IIP - Updated : 26 Nov 02)

  • Additionality

  • The issue of whether greenhouse gas emissions reduction or sequestration in a JI or CDM project constitutes a reduction that would not have otherwise occurred. The Marrakesh Accord states that determination of additionality is done via definition of the baseline. Before Marrakesh, there were several distinct forms of additionality:
    � Financial additionality: a project does not use ODA (Official Development Assistance) or GEF funds. This is somewhat reflected by the rule that a CDM project shall not �divert� ODA.
    � Economic/investment additionality: the project is not profitable taking into account risks and non-monetary barriers. There were differing views how to determine economic/investment additionality in quantitative terms.
    � Environmental additionality: the project reduces emissions.
    (Source: IIP - Updated : 24 Apr 03)

  • Air pollution

  • Accumulation in the atmosphere of substances that, in sufficient concentration, endanger human health or produce other measurable effects on living matter and other materials. Major types of pollutants are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, particulates, sulfur dioxide, and photochemical oxidants, including ozone. (Updated : 19 Sep 02)

  • Annex I countries

  • All industrialized countries and countries with economies in transition are listed in the Annex 1 of the Kyoto Protocol. (Source: IIP - Updated : 26 Nov 02)

  • Assigned amount units (AAUs)

  • Emission permits traded under International Emission Trading (IET) are called parts of assigned amount (PAA) or assigned amount units (AAUs). (See paragraph 10 and 11 of Article 3 of the Kyoto protocol) (Source: IIP - Updated : 26 Nov 02)

  • Average demand

  • The energy demand in a given geographical area over a period of time. For example, the number of kilowatt-hours used in a 24-hour period, divided by 24, is the average demand for that period. (Updated : 13 Nov 02)

  • Avoided cost

  • The cost the utility would incur but for the existence of an independent generator or other energy service option. Avoided cost rates have been used as the power purchase price utilities offer independent suppliers. (Updated : 13 Nov 02)

  • Balance-of-System

  • In a renewable energy system, refers to all components other than the mechanism used to harvest the resource (such as photovoltaic panels or a wind turbine). Balance-of-system costs can include design, land, site preparation, system installation, support structures, power conditioning, operation and maintenance, and storage. (Updated : 13 Nov 02)

  • Base load

  • The lowest level of power production needs during a season or year. (Updated : 13 Nov 02)

  • Base load unit

  • A power generating facility that is intended to run constantly at near capacity levels, as much of the time as possible. (Updated : 13 Nov 02)

  • Base rate

  • That portion of the total electric or gas rate covering the general costs of doing business unrelated to fuel expenses. (Updated : 13 Nov 02)

  • Baseline forecast:

  • A prediction of future energy needs which does not take into account the likely effects of new conservation programs that have not yet been started. (Updated : 13 Nov 02)

  • Bidding procedures

  • Procedure in which limited rights (e.g. subsidies) are awarded to a restricted number of parties or to a restricted amount of renewable energy production through a competitive bidding system, which results in very cost-effective offers. (Updated : 13 Nov 02)

  • Bilateral contract

  • A two-party agreement for the purchase and the sale of energy products and services. (Updated : 13 Nov 02)

  • Biofuel

  • Fuel derived from biomass i.e., a substance produced by living organisms but not fossil fuels, for example, wood from energy forests and timber waste. (Updated : 19 Sep 02)

  • Biomass

  • Two categories of energetically usable biomass can be distinguished: on the one hand organic waste of households, industry as well as agriculture and forestry, for example house rubbish, sewage gas, animal rest products (manure, dung) or wood waste; on the other side the plants which are strictly cultivated for the purpose of energy production. The utilization of biomass takes often place in combined heat and power plants. See also biofuel. (Updated : 02 Oct 02)

  • Buy through

  • An agreement between utility and customer to import power when the customer's service would otherwise be interrupted. (Updated : 13 Nov 02)

  • Buyer

  • An entity that purchases electrical energy or services from the power exchange (PX) or through a bilateral contract on behalf of end-use customers. (Updated : 13 Nov 02)

  • Carbon dioxide, CO2

  • A colorless and, at room temperature, gaseous substance found in the atmosphere as part of nature's life cycle. Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels, can increase levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which is believed to affect the climate. The primary greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide. (Updated : 19 Sep 02)

  • Carbon monoxide, CO

  • A colorless, odorless gas found in trace amounts in the atmosphere. Produced by incomplete combustion of carbonaceous materials, CO is highly toxic because of its high affinity for hemoglobin in red blood cells. (Updated : 19 Sep 02)