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    The EC-ASEAN Green IPP network is pleased to invite you to take part in the expert discussion on Green Independent Power Producers for South East Asia. We value your opinion, sharing of facts and experience on main issues for IPPs. To allow an interactive discussion between experts, we have set up a discussion forum in our website. We welcome your contribution to the discussion, and reaction on other entries on this website, to allow an active and dynamic discussion.

    The questions are grouped into the following topics:

    • Policy and market for Renewable Energy in South East Asia
    • Project organisation and financing structures
    • Technology and resources

    The website discussion will be moderated by the Green IPP network team on a weekly basis throughout the month of August. The discussion results will be used as input on the Green IPP network Third Regional Workshop to be held in Amsterdam on 25th September 2003.

    However, if it is more convenient for you to share your ideas and expertise based on this discussion document, we will gladly receive your filled in document by email to , and we will enter your remarks on the discussion forum for you.

    Policy and market for Renewable Energy in South East Asia

    Policy instruments

    Many countries choose to develop their own specific policies to enable renewable energy. This results in as many different promotional schemes. Which promotional systems would Green Independent Power Producer prefer and why? It is important to comment on financial and political feasibility. For example in Europe, renewable energy implementation has experienced a high growth in Germany, where a feed-in tariff set for a 20 year period has been developed to stimulate renewable energy. Critics of this system comment that such systems will be hardly financeable in the future as the RE sector expands- estimated costs to consumers in Germany are 3775 Million EURO in 2020. Trade in an international market for electricity from renewable sources can stimulate cost efficient implementation. This type of scheme is the other largely supported strategy to stimulate the renewable energy market. Several countries (eg UK, Netherlands, Italy) have set up quota systems using certificates for the verification and trade of electricity from renewable sources.

    Question 1: Which policy instrument or set of instruments would you recommend for the stimulation of Green IPPs in Asia?

    • A Power purchase obligations- obligations on utilities to purchase RE from Green IPPs? (fixed feed-in-tariffs, fixed premiums)
    • B Investment subsidies for renewable energy technologies
    • C Reduced tax on renewable energy technologies (imports)
    • D Market obligations-obligation on utilities to produce or sell a certain share of electricity from renewable sources in the total electricity production or sales volume (Renewable Portfolio Standard)
    • Other: explain----------------------------------

    Please give examples or arguments for your answer (is your answer specific to a certain country, period, or technology?)

    Project organisation and financing structures

    Banks and financiers

    In countries with a low record of successful renewable energy projects, financing is often problematic. Renewable energy projects generally have longer project periods than conventional investment projects, and financiers associate new technology with high risk.. This increases costs of finance for Green IPPs and decreases the number of bankable projects. Investors normally look at other indicators than banks, which could lead to different perspectives on a project.

    Question2: How can banks and investors be interested in financing Green IPPs?

    • A grouping projects: offering a portfolio of projects
    • B new financing structures
    • C knowledge and awareness
    • D other: -------------

    Public participation

    Public participation models have been used successfully to finance renewable energy projects and to overcome problems with social acceptance in a number of countries, eg Denmark and Germany. Private citizens or municipalities have been involved in renewable energy projects. The role of public participation is currently decreasing in Europe, and being replaced by "professional" finance products such as closed end funds.

    Question3: Is public participation a model for Green IPPs in South East Asia?

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), offers an additional revenue source for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in developing countries. Many projects have already been designed for submission under CDM , including a large number of renewable energy projects. These projects offer 3-5 US$ per ton CO2.  The objectives of the CDM are not only the enhancement of reduction of global Green House Gas emissions in a cost efficient manner, but to stimulate sustainable development of the host countries- including technology transfer.

    Question 4: What do you expect of CDM in stimulating investments in renewable energy technology by IPPs?

    Question 5: Will CDM encourage substantial knowledge transfer for Green IPPs in Asia? Please give examples or arguments for your answer

    Technology and resources

    Question 6: Is information on resources a critical issue for Green IPP development?

    Question 7: What would be your recommendation on handling resource information? Should IPPs (especially wind projects) be obliged to make information publicly available ?

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